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Mass Spectrometry Reviews - published by
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The scope of the published reviews include, but are not limited to topics, such as theoretical treatments, instrumental design, ionization methods, analyzers, detectors, application to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of various compounds or elements, basic ion chemistry and structure studies, ion energetic studies, and studies on biomolecules, polymers, etc.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry - published by
Wiley Interscience -
The aim of JMS is to serve the scientific community with information provided and arranged to help senior investigators to better stay abreast of new discoveries and studies in their own field, to make them aware of events and developments in associated fields, and to provide students and newcomers the basic tools with which to learn fundamental and applied aspects of mass spectrometry.
Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Fachartikel der
Sodium adduct formation efficiency in ESI source
Formation of sodium adducts in electrospray (ESI) has been known for long time, but has not been used extensively in practice, and several important aspects of Na
+ adduct formation in ESI source have been almost unexplored: the ionization efficiency of different molecules via Na + adduct formation, its dependence on molecular structure and Na + ion concentration in solution, fragmentation behaviour of the adducts as well as the ruggedness (a prerequisite for wider practical use) of ionization via Na + adduct formation. In this work, we have developed a parameter describing sodium adducts formation efficiency (SAFE) of neutral molecules and have built a SAFE scale that ranges for over four orders of magnitude and contains 19 compounds. In general, oxygen bases have higher efficiency of Na + adducts formation than nitrogen bases because of the higher partial negative charge on oxygen atoms and competition from protonation in the case of nitrogen bases. Chelating ability strongly increases the Na + adduct formation efficiency. We show that not only protonation but also Na + adduct formation is a quantitative and reproducible process if relative measurements are performed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening for synthethic cannabinoids in herbal blends
‘Legal highs’ are novel substances which are intended to elicit a psychoactive response. They are sold from ‘head shops’, the internet and from street suppliers and may be possessed without legal restriction. Several months ago, a 19-year-old woman came searching for medical treatment as she had health problems caused by smoking legal highs. The substances were sold as herbal blends in plastic bags under four different labels. In this work, samples of these herbal blends have been analysed to investigate the presence of psychoactive substances without any reference standard being available at the laboratory. A screening strategy for a large number of synthetic and natural cannabinoids has been applied based on the use of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) under MS
E mode. A customized home-made database containing literature-based exact masses for parent and product ions of around 200 synthetic and natural cannabinoids was compiled.
The presence of the (de)protonated molecule measured at its accurate mass was evaluated in the samples. When a peak was detected, collision-induced dissociation fragments and characteristic isotopic ions were also evaluated and used for tentative identification. After this tentative identification, four synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-203 and JWH-019) were unequivocally confirmed by subsequent acquisition of reference standards. The presence in the herbal blends of these synthetic cannabinoids might explain the psychotic and catatonic symptoms observed in the patient, as JWH compounds could act as potent agonists of CB
1 and CB 2 receptors located in the Limbic System and Basal ganglia of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mass spectrometric and peptide chip characterization of an assembled epitope: analysis of a polyclonal antibody model serum directed against the Sjøgren/systemic lupus erythematosus autoantigen TRIM21
We demonstrate the development of a mass spectrometry-based epitope-mapping procedure in combination with Western blot analysis that works also with antigens that are insoluble in nondenaturing buffers consuming minute amounts of antigen (approximately 200 pmol) and antibody (approximately 15 pmol), respectively. A polyclonal anti-TRIM21 rabbit antibody serum is applied as a model serum for future patient analyses to set up the system. The major epitope that is recognized by the anti-TRIM21 serum spans the central TRIM21 region LQ-E
EKD L RE E LRI Q GE-KE, showing that immunization with a 139-amino acid residue long peptide resulted in a ‘monospecific’ polyclonal antibody repertoire. Protein structure investigations, secondary structure predictions, and surface area calculations revealed that the best matching partial sequence to fulfill all primary and secondary structure requirements was the four amino acid spanning motif ‘L–E–Q–L’, which is present in both the sequential and the L α-helical peptide conformation. Peptide chip analyses confirmed the mass spectrometric results and showed that the peptide chip platform is an appropriate method for displaying secondary structure-relying epitope conformations. As the same secondary structures are present in vivo, patient antibody screening, e.g., to identify subgroups of patients according to distinct epitope antibody reactivities, is feasible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Direct desorption/ionization of analytes by microwave plasma torch for ambient mass spectrometric analysis
Ambient ionization is the new revolution in mass spectrometry (MS). A microwave plasma produced by a microwave plasma torch (MPT) at atmospheric pressure was directly used for ambient mass spectrometric analysis. H
3O + and NH 4 + and their water clusters from the background are formed and create protonated molecules and ammoniated molecules of the analytes. In the full-scan mass spectra, both the quasi-molecular ions of the analytes and their characteristic ionic fragments are obtained and provide evidence of the analyte. The successful detection of active compounds in both medicine and garlic proves that MPT has the efficient desorption/ionization capability to analyze solid samples. The obtained decay curve of nicotine in exhaled breath indicates that MPT-MS is a useful tool for monitoring gas samples in real time. These results showed that the MPT, with the advantages of stable plasma, minimal optimization, easy, solvent-free operation, and no pretreatment, is another potential technique for ambient MS. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantitative mapping of glycoprotein micro-heterogeneity and macro-heterogeneity: an evaluation of mass spectrometry signal strengths using synthetic peptides and glycopeptides
Mass spectrometry (MS) is used to quantify the relative distribution of glycans attached to particular protein glycosylation sites (micro-heterogeneity) and evaluate the molar site occupancy (macro-heterogeneity) in glycoproteomics. However, the accuracy of MS for such quantitative measurements remains to be clarified. As a key step towards this goal, a panel of related tryptic peptides with and without complex, biantennary, disialylated N-glycans was chemically synthesised by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Peptides mimicking those resulting from enzymatic deglycosylation using PNGase F/A and endo D/F/H were synthetically produced, carrying aspartic acid and
N-acetylglucosamine-linked asparagine residues, respectively, at the glycosylation site. The MS ionisation/detection strengths of these pure, well-defined and quantified compounds were investigated using various MS ionisation techniques and mass analysers (ESI-IT, ESI-Q-TOF, MALDI-TOF, ESI/MALDI-FT-ICR-MS). Depending on the ion source/mass analyser, glycopeptides carrying complex-type N-glycans exhibited clearly lower signal strengths (10–50% of an unglycosylated peptide) when equimolar amounts were analysed. Less ionisation/detection bias was observed when the glycopeptides were analysed by nano-ESI and medium-pressure MALDI. The position of the glycosylation site within the tryptic peptides also influenced the signal response, in particular if detected as singly or doubly charged signals. This is the first study to systematically and quantitatively address and determine MS glycopeptide ionisation/detection strengths to evaluate glycoprotein micro-heterogeneity and macro-heterogeneity by label-free approaches. These data form a much needed knowledge base for accurate quantitative glycoproteomics. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Resolving double disulfide bond patterns in SNAP25B using liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry
Complex disulfide bond patterns in synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kD B (SNAP25B) are thought to regulate neurotransmitter release in response to oxidative stress. However, the steric feasibility of each possible disulfide pattern in SNAP25B has not been assessed. To assess the steric feasibility of hypothesized closely spaced complex disulfide patterning in SNAP25B and also the feasibility of identifying complex disulfide bond patterns with MS, we have developed a novel probabilistic analysis to unambiguously resolve complex double disulfide bond patterns by using an ion trap mass spectrometer. We analyzed fragmentation patterns of singly linked peptides to determine likely fragmentation events in an ion trap mass spectrometer and observed double and single backbone cleavage along with heterolytic cleavage of the disulfide bond. We modeled these same events in the doubly disulfide linked SNAP25B peptide and used a cumulative hypergeometric distribution with top–down scoring to both identify and differentiate these bonding patterns. Because of the presence of unique MS/MS peaks, two of the bonding patterns were directly identified. The third was assigned on the basis of full chromatographic separation and confirmed by modeling triple breakage fragments. In total, this work demonstrates the feasibility – and also limitations – of identification of complex intradisulfide patterns by using ion trap-based collision-induced dissociation-based fragmentation methods. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Identification and structural elucidation of in vitro metabolites of atazanavir by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry
Atazanavir (marketed as Reyataz®) is an important member of the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor class. LC-UV-MS
n experiments were designed to identify metabolites of atazanavir after incubations in human hepatocytes. Five major (M1–M5) and seven minor (M7–M12) metabolites were identified. The most abundant metabolite, M1, was formed by a mono-oxidation on the t-butyl group at the non-prime side. The second most abundant metabolite, M2, was also a mono-oxidation product, which has not yet been definitively identified. Metabolites, M3 and M4, were structural isomers, which were apparently formed by oxidative carbamate hydrolysis. The structure of M5 comprises the non-prime side of atazanavir which contains a pyridinyl-benzyl group. Metabolite M6a was formed by the cleavage of the pyridinyl-benzyl side chain, as evidenced by the formation of the corresponding metabolic product, the pyridinyl-benzoic acid (M6b). Mono-oxidation also occurred on the pyridinyl-benzyl group to produce the low abundance metabolite M8. Oxidation of the terminal methyl groups produced M9 and M10, respectively, which have low chemical stability. Trace-level metabolites of di-oxidations, M11 and M12, were also detected, but the complexity of the molecule precluded identification of the second oxidation site. To our knowledge, metabolites M6b and M8 have not been reported. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Efficiency of the dry–wet method for the MALDI-MSI analysis of latent fingermarks ABSTRACT
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool to investigate problems in several fields of life science. A novel application is in the field of forensics, particularly in the analysis of latent fingermarks. This technology enables images of the fingermark ridge detail and additional intelligence to be simultaneously obtained. Although several methods are available to deposit the MALDI matrix, to make the technology forensically operational, another deposition approach was devised and reported, namely the ‘dry–wet’ method. In the present study, the efficiency of the dry–wet method was evaluated and compared with the conventional spray coat methodology. Results indicate that the dry–wet method is superior for all the donors' typologies in terms of ion signal intensity and clarity of the ridge details. To underpin the reasons of this efficiency, scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out in parallel to MALDI-MSI experiments using matrices of different particle size. Results have confirmed that the particle size plays an important role in the efficiency of the method as higher quality images and higher intensity spectra are produced as the matrix particle size decreases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Looking back into the future: 30 years of metabolomics at TNO Abstract
Metabolites have played an essential role in our understanding of life, health, and disease for thousands of years. This domain became much more important after the concept of metabolism was discovered. In the 1950s, mass spectrometry was coupled to chromatography and made the technique more application-oriented and allowed the development of new profiling technologies. Since 1980, TNO has performed system-based metabolic profiling of body fluids, and combined with pattern recognition has led to many discoveries and contributed to the field known as metabolomics and systems biology. This review describes the development of related concepts and applications at TNO in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, nutritional, and microbiological fields, and provides an outlook for the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
The usefulness of hydrazine derivatives for mass spectrometric analysis of carbohydrates Abstract
Over the last years, extensive studies have evaluated glycans from different biological samples and validated the importance of glycosylation as one of the most important post-translational modifications of proteins. Although a number of new methods for carbohydrate analysis have been published and there has been significant progress in their identification, the development of new approaches to study these biomolecules and understand their role in living systems are still vivid challenges that intrigue glycobiologists. In the last decade, the success in analyses of oligosaccharides has been driven mainly by the development of innovative, highly sensitive mass spectrometry techniques. For enhanced mass spectrometry detection, carbohydrate molecules are often derivatized. Besides, the type of labeling can influence the fragmentation pattern and make the structural analysis less complicated. In this regard, in 2003 we introduced the low scale, simple non-reductive tagging of glycans employing phenylhydrazine (PHN) as the derivatizing reagent. PHN-labeled glycans showed increased detection and as reported previously they can be analyzed by HPLC, ESI, or MALDI immediately after derivatization. Under tandem mass spectrometry conditions, PHN-derivatives produced useful data for the structural elucidation of oligosaccharides. This approach of analysis has helped to reveal new isomeric structures for glycans of known/unknown composition and has been successfully applied for the profiling of
N-glycans obtained from serum samples and cancer cells. The efficacy of this labeling has also been evaluated for different substituted hydrazine reagents. This review summarizes all types of reducing-end labeling based on hydrazone-linkage that have been used for mass spectrometric analyses of oligosaccharides. This review is also aimed at correcting some past misconceptions or interpretations reported in the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
Novel insights into protein misfolding diseases revealed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry Abstract
Amyloid disorders incorporate a wide range of human diseases arising from the failure of a specific peptide or protein to adopt, or remain in, its native functional conformational state. These pathological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease are highly debilitating, exact enormous costs on both individuals and society, and are predicted to increase in prevalence. Consequently, they form the focus of a topical and rich area of current scientific research. A major goal in attempts to understand and treat protein misfolding diseases is to define the structures and interactions of protein species intermediate between fully folded and aggregated, and extract a description of the aggregation process. This has proven a difficult task due to the inability of traditional structural biology approaches to analyze structurally heterogeneous systems. Continued developments in instrumentation and analytical approaches have seen ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) emerge as a complementary approach for protein structure determination, and in some cases, a structural biology tool in its own right. IM-MS is well suited to the study of protein misfolding, and has already yielded significant structural information for selected amyloidogenic systems during the aggregation process. This review describes IM-MS for protein structure investigation, and provides a summary of current research highlighting how this methodology has unequivocally and unprecedentedly provided structural and mechanistic detail pertaining to the oligomerization of a variety of disease related proteins. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 32:169–187, 2013
A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: Translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues Abstract
Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9–12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34–70% (FAO,
2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
Proteomics analysis of tumor microenvironment: Implications of metabolic and oxidative stresses in tumorigenesis Abstract
Tumorigenesis is always concomitant with microenvironmental alterations. The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous and complex milieu, which exerts a variety of stresses on tumor cells for proliferation, survival, or death. Recently, accumulated evidence revealed that metabolic and oxidative stresses both play significant roles in tumor development and progression that converge on a common autophagic pathway. Tumor cells display increased metabolic autonomy, and the hallmark is the exploitation of aerobic glycolysis (termed Warburg effect), which increased glucose consumption and decreased oxidative phosphorylation to support growth and proliferation. This characteristic renders cancer cells more aggressive; they devour tremendous amounts of nutrients from microenvironment to result in an ever-growing appetite for new tumor vessel formation and the release of more “waste,” including key determinants of cell fate like lactate and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The intracellular ROS level of cancer cells can also be modulated by a variety of stimuli in the tumor microenvironment, such as pro-growth and pro-inflammatory factors. The intracellular redox state serves as a double-edged sword in tumor development and progression: ROS overproduction results in cytotoxic effects and might lead to apoptotic cell death, whereas certain level of ROS can act as a second-messenger for regulation of such cellular processes as cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis. The molecular mechanisms for cancer cell responses to metabolic and oxidative stresses are complex and are likely to involve multiple molecules or signaling pathways. In addition, the expression and modification of these proteins after metabolic or oxidative stress challenge are diverse in different cancer cells and endow them with different functions. Therefore, MS-based high-throughput platforms, such as proteomics, are indispensable in the global analysis of cancer cell responses to metabolic and oxidative stress. Herein, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the metabolic and oxidative stresses associated with tumor progression with proteomics-based systems biology approaches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
Application of mass spectrometry to hair analysis for forensic toxicological investigations Abstract
The increasing role of hair analysis in forensic toxicological investigations principally owes to recent improvements of mass spectrometric instrumentation. Research achievements during the last 6 years in this distinctive application area of analytical toxicology are reviewed. The earlier state of the art of hair analysis was comprehensively covered by a dedicated book (Kintz, 2007a. Analytical and practical aspects of drug testing in hair. Boca Raton: CRC Press and Taylor & Francis, 382 p) that represents key reference of the present overview. Whereas the traditional organization of analytical methods in forensic toxicology divided target substances into quite homogeneous groups of drugs, with similar structures and chemical properties, the current approach often takes advantage of the rapid expansion of multiclass and multiresidue analytical procedures; the latter is made possible by the fast operation and extreme sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers. This change in the strategy of toxicological analysis is reflected in the presentation of the recent literature material, which is mostly based on a fit-for-purpose logic. Thus, general screening of unknown substances is applied in diverse forensic contexts than drugs of abuse testing, and different instrumentation (triple quadrupoles, time-of-flight analyzers, linear and orbital traps) is utilized to optimally cope with the scope. Other key issues of modern toxicology, such as cost reduction and high sample throughput, are discussed with reference to procedural and instrumental alternatives. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
Tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of covalent adducts of dna with anticancer therapeutics Abstract
The chemotherapeutic activities of many anticancer and antibacterial drugs arise from their interactions with nucleic acid substrates. Some of these ligands interact with DNA in a way that causes conformational changes or damage to the nucleic acid targets, ultimately altering recognition by key DNA-specific enzymes, interfering with DNA transcription or prohibiting replication, and terminating cell growth and proliferation. The design and synthesis of ligands that bind to nucleic acids remains a dynamic field in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research. The quest for more selective and efficacious DNA-interactive anticancer chemotherapeutics has likewise catalyzed the need for sensitive analytical methods that can provide structural information about the nature of the resulting DNA adducts and provide insight into the mechanistic pathways of the DNA/drug interactions and the impact on the cellular processes in biological systems. This review focuses on the array of tandem mass spectrometric strategies developed and applied for characterization of covalent adducts formed between DNA and anticancer ligands. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev
Mass spectrometry imaging under ambient conditions Abstract
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI for example the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information on the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue diagnostic purposes. Finally, we discuss the challenges in ambient MSI and include perspectives on the future of the field. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 32:218–243, 2013
MALDI TOF MS profiling of bacteria at the strain level: A review Abstract
Since the advent of the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) as a tool for microbial characterization, efforts to increase the taxonomic resolution of the approach have been made. The rapidity and efficacy of the approach have suggested applications in counter-bioterrorism, prevention of food contamination, and monitoring the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Strain-level resolution has been reported with diverse bacteria, using library-based and bioinformatics-enabled approaches. Three types of characterization at the strain level have been reported: strain categorization, strain differentiation, and strain identification. Efforts to enhance the library-based approach have involved sample pre-treatment and data reduction strategies. Bioinformatics approaches have leveraged the ever-increasing amount of publicly available genomic and proteomic data to attain strain-level characterization. Bioinformatics-enabled strategies have facilitated strain characterization via intact biomarker identification, bottom-up, and top-down approaches. Rigorous quantitative and advanced statistical analyses have fostered success at the strain level with both approaches. Library-based approaches can be limited by effects of sample preparation and culture conditions on reproducibility, whereas bioinformatics-enabled approaches are typically limited to bacteria, for which genetic and/or proteomic data are available. Biological molecules other than proteins produced in strain-specific manners, including lipids and lipopeptides, might represent other avenues by which strain-level resolution might be attained. Immunological and lectin-based chemistries have shown promise to enhance sensitivity and specificity. Whereas the limits of the taxonomic resolution of MALDI TOF MS profiling of bacteria appears bacterium-specific, recent data suggest that these limits might not yet have been reached. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 32:188–217, 2013