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Elektronenbindungsenergien

... der chemischen Elemente.




Als Elektronenbindungsenergie wird die Energiemenge bezeichnet, die einem Elektron zugeführt werden muss, um es endgültig aus einem Atom zu entfernen.

Atome bestehen aus einem Atomkern mit positiv geladenen Protonen und elektrisch neutralen Neutronen sowie einer Atomhülle, in der sich die Elektronen aufhalten. Die negativ geladenen Elektronen werden vom Atomkern angezogen. Die zur Überwindung dieses Coulomb-Kraftfelds gerade erforderliche Energie ist die Elektronen-Bindungsenergie.

Für ein einzelnes Wasserstoff-Atom ist diese Energie gerade noch genau festlegbar - zum einem mittels der Schrödinger-Gleichung auf der nicht-relativistischen Ebene, zum anderen auf der relativistischen Ebene mittels der Dirac-Gleichung.

Die nachfolgende Tabelle führt die Elektronenbindungsenergien in Elektronvolt (eV) für die Elemente in ihrer natürlichen Form auf.

Wasserstoff bis Kohlenstoff

HHeLiBeBC K1s13,598124,654,7111,5188284,2

 

Stickstoff bis Magnesium

NOFNeNaMg K1s409,9543,1696,7870,21070,81303,0 L-I2s37,341,648,563,588,7 L-II2p1/221,730,6549,78 L-III2p3/221,630,8149,5

 

Aluminium bis Argon

AlSiPSClAr K1s1559,618392145,524722822,43205,9 L-I2s117,8149,7189230,9270326,3 L-II2p1/272,9599,82136163,6202250,6 L-III2p3/272,5599,42135162,5200248,4 M-I3s29,3 M-II3p1/215,9 M-III3p3/215,7

 

Kalium bis Chrom

KCaScTiVCr K1s3608,44038,54492496654655989 L-I2s378,6438,4498,0560,9626,7696 L-II2p1/2297,3349,7403,6460,2519,8583,8 L-III2p3/2294,6346,2398,7453,8512,1574,1 M-I3s34,844,3 51,158,766,374,1 M-II3p1/218,325,428,332,637,242,2 M-III3p3/218,325,428,332,637,242,2

 

Mangan bis Zink

MnFeCoNiCuZn K1s653971127709833389799659 L-I2s769,1844,6925,11008,61096,71196, L-II2p1/2649,9719,9793,2870952,31044,9 L-III2p3/2638,7706,8778,1852,7932,71021,8 M-I3s82,391,3101110,8122,5139,8 M-II3p1/247,252,758,96877,391,4 M-III3p3/247,252,759,966,275,188,6 M-IV3d3/210,2 M-V3d5/210,1

 

Gallium bis Krypton

GaGeAsSeBrKr K1s103671110311867126581347414326 L-I2s1299,01414,61527,01652,017821921 L-II2p1/21143,21248,11359,11474,315961730,9 L-III2p3/21116,41217,01323,61433,915501678,4 M-I3s159,5180,1204,7229,6257292,8 M-II3p1/2103,5124,9146,2166,5189222,2 M-III3p3/2100120,8141,2160,7182214,4 M-IV3d3/218,729,841,755,57095,0 M-V3d5/218,729,241,754,66993,8 N-I4s27,5 N-II4p1/214,1 N-III4p3/214,1

 

Rubidium bis Molybdän

RbSrYZrNbMo K1s152001610517038179981898620000 L-I2s206522162373253226982866 L-II2p1/2186420072156230724652625 L-III2p3/2180419402080222323712520 M-I3s326,7358,7392,0430,3466,6506,3 M-II3p1/2248,7280,3310,6343,5376,1411,6 M-III3p3/2239,1270298,8329,8360,6394 M-IV3d3/2113,0136157,7181,1205231,1 M-V3d5/2112134,2155,8178,8202,3227,9 N-I4s30,538,943,850,656,463,2 N-II4p1/216,321,324,428,532,637,6 N-III4p3/215,3 20,123,127,130,835,5

 

Technetium bis Cadmium

TcRuRhPdAgCd K1s210442211723220243502551426711 L-I2s304332243412360438064018 L-II2p1/2279329673146333035243727 L-III2p3/2267728383004317333513538 M-I3s544586,1628,1671,6719772 M-II3p1/2447,6483,5521,3559,9603,8652,6 M-III3p3/2417,7461,4496,5532,3573618,4 M-IV3d3/2257,6284,2311,9340,5374411,9 M-V3d5/2253,9280307,2335,2368,3405,2 N-I4s69,57581,487,197109,8 N-II4p1/242,346,350,555,763,763,9 N-III4p3/239,943,247,350,958,363,9 N-IV4d3/211,7 N-V4d5/210,7

 

Indium bis Xenon

InSnSbTeIXe K1s279402920030491318143316934561 L-I2s423844654698493951885453 L-II2p1/2393841564380461248525107 L-III2p3/2373039294132434145574786 M-I3s827,2884,7946100610721148,7 M-II3p1/2703,2756,5812,7870,89311002,1 M-III3p3/2665,3714,6766,4820875940,6 M-IV3d3/2451,4493,2537,5583,4630,8689,0 M-V3d5/2443,9484,9528,2573619,3676,4 N-I4s122,9137,1153,2169,4186213,2 N-II4p1/273,583,695,6103,3123146,7 N-III4p3/273,583,695,6103,3123145,5 N-IV4d3/217,724,933,341,950,669,5 N-V4d5/216,923,932,140,448,967,5 N-VI4f5/2- N-VII4f7/2- O-I5s23,3 O-II5p1/213,4 O-III5p3/212,1

 

Cäsium bis Neodym

CsBaLaCePrNd K1s359853744138925404434199143569 L-I2s571459896266654968357126 L-II2p1/2535956245891616464406722 L-III2p3/2501252475483572359646208 M-I3s121112931362143615111575 M-II3p1/2107111371209127413371403 M-III3p3/21003106311281187*12421297 M-IV3d3/2740,5795,7853902,4948,31003,3 M-V3d5/2726,6780,5836883,8928,8980,4 N-I4s232,3253,5274,7291,0304,5319,2 N-II4p1/2172,4192205,8223,2236,3243,3 N-III4p3/2161,3178,6196,0206,5217,6224,6 N-IV4d3/279,892,6105,3109115,1120,5 N-V4d5/277,589,9102,5-115,1120,5 N-VI4f5/2---0,121,5 N-VII4f7/2---0,121,5 O-I5s22,730,334,337,837,437,5 O-II5p1/214,21719,319,822,321,1 O-III5p3/212,114,816,817,022,321,1

 

Promethium bis Dysprosium

PmSmEuGdTeDy K1s451844683448519502393181453789 L-I2s742877378052837649399046 L-II2p1/2701373127617793046128581 L-III2p3/2645967166977724343417790 M-I3s17231800188110062047 M-II3p1/21471154116141688870,81842 M-III3p3/213571420148115448201676 M-IV3d3/210521110,91158,61221,9583,41333 M-V3d5/210271083,41127,51189,65731292,6 N-I4s-347,2360378,6169,4414,2 N-II4p1/2242265,6284286103,3333,5 N-III4p3/2242247,4257271103,3293,2 N-IV4d3/2120129133-41,9153,6 N-V4d5/2120129127,7142,640,4153,6 N-VI4f5/2-5,2-8,68,0 N-VII4f7/2-5,2-8,64,3 O-I5s-37,4323649,9 O-II5p1/2-21,3222826,3 O-III5p3/2-21,3222126,3

 

Holmium bis Hafnium

HoErTmYbLuHf K1s556185748659390613326331465351 L-I2s9394975110116104861087011271 L-II2p1/289189264961799781034910739 L-III2p3/2807183588648894492449561 M-I3s212822072307239824912601 M-II3p1/2192320062090217322642365 M-III3p3/2174118121885195020242108 M-IV3d3/2139214531515157616391716 M-V3d5/2135114091468152815891662 N-I4s432,4449,8470,9480,5506,8538* N-II4p1/2343,5366,2385,9388,7412,4438,2 N-III4p3/2308,2320,2332,6339,7359,2380,7 N-IV4d3/2160167,6175,5191,2206,1220 N-V4d5/2160167,6175,5182,4196,3211,5 N-VI4f5/28,6--2,58,915,9 N-VII4f7/25,24,74,61,37,514,2 O-I5s49,350,654,752,057,364,2 O-II5p1/230,831,431,830,333,638 O-III5p3/224,124,725,024,126,729,9

 

Tantal bis Platin

TaWReOsIrPt K1s674166952571676738717611178395 L-I2s116821210012527129681341913880 L-II2p1/2111361154411959123851282413273 L-III2p3/298811020710535108711121511564 M-I3s270828202932304931743296 M-II3p1/2246925752682279229093027 M-III3p3/2219422812367245725512645 M-IV3d3/2179318721949203121162202 M-V3d5/2173518091883196020402122 N-I4s563,4594,1625,4658,2691,1725,4 N-II4p1/2463,4490,4518,7549,1577,8609,1 N-III4p3/2400,9423,6446,8470,7495,8519,4 N-IV4d3/2237,9255,9273,9293,1311,9331,6 N-V4d5/2226,4243,5260,5278,5296,3314,6 N-VI4f5/223,533,642,953,463,874,5 N-VII4f7/221,631,440,550,760,871,2 O-I5s69,775,6838495,2101,7 O-II5p1/242,245,345,65863,065,3 O-III5p3/232,736,834,644,54851,7

 

Gold bis Polonium

AuHgTlPbSbPo K1s807258310285530880053049193105 L-I2s14353148391534715861469816939 L-II2p1/213734142091469815200438016244 L-III2p3/211919122841265813035413213814 M-I3s34253562370438519464149 M-II3p1/23148327934163554812,73854 M-III3p3/22743284729573066766,43302 M-IV3d3/22291238524852586537,52798 M-V3d5/22206229523892484528,22683 N-I4s762,1802,2846,2891,8153,2995 N-II4p1/2642,7680,2720,5761,995,6851 N-III4p3/2546,3576,6609,5643,595,6705 N-IV4d3/2353,2378,2405,7434,333,3500 N-V4d5/2335,1358,8385412,232,1473 N-VI4f5/287,6104122,2141,7184 N-VII4f7/28499,9117,8136,9184 O-I5s107,2127136,0147177 O-II5p1/274,283,194,6106,4132 O-III5p3/257,264,573,583,3104 O-IV5d3/29,614,720,731 O-V5d5/27,812,518,131

 

Astat bis Thorium

AtRnFrRaAcTh K1s9573098404101137103922106755109651 L-I2s174931804918639192371984020472 L-II2p1/2167851733717907184841908319693 L-III2p3/2142141461915031154441587116300 M-I3s431744824652482250025182 M-II3p1/2400841594327449046564830 M-III3p3/2342635383663379239094046 M-IV3d3/2290930223136324833703491 M-V3d5/2278728923000310532193332 N-I4s104210971153120812691330 N-II4p1/2886929980105810801168 N-III4p3/2740768810879890966,4 N-IV4d3/2533567603636675712,1 N-V4d5/2507541577603639675,2 N-VI4f5/2210238268299319342,4 N-VII4f7/2210238268299319333,1 O-I5s195214234254272290 O-II5p1/2148164182200215229 O-III5p3/2115127140153167182 O-IV5d3/2404858688092,5 O-V5d5/2404858688085,4 P-I6s26344441,4 P-II6p1/2151924,5 P-III6p3/2151916,6

 

Protactinium bis Curium

PaUNpPuAmCm K1s112601115606118669121791124982128241 L-I2s211052175722427231042380824526 L-II2p1/2203142094821600222662295223651 L-III2p3/2167331716617610180571851018970 M-I3s536755485739593361336337 M-II3p1/2500151825366554757395937 M-III3p3/2417443034435456346984838 M-IV3d3/2361137283849397040964224 M-V3d5/2344235523664377538904009 N-I4s138714391501155916201684 N-II4p1/2122412711328138014381498 N-III4p3/2100710431085112311651207 N-IV4d3/2743778,3816846880916 N-V4d5/2708736,2771798829862 N-VI4f5/2371388,2414436461484 N-VII4f7/2360377,4403424446470 O-I5s310321338350365383 O-II5p1/2232257274283298313 O-III5p3/2232192206213219229 O-IV5d3/294102,8109113116124 O-V5d5/29494,2101102106110 P-I6s43,947464850 P-II6p1/226,829292930 P-III6p3/216,818161616

 

Berkelium bis Nobelium

BkCfEsFmMdNo K1s131556134939138396141926145526149208 L-I2s252562601026782275742838729221 L-II2p1/2243712510825865266412743828255 L-III2p3/2194351990720384208682135621851 M-I3s654567616981720874407678 M-II3p1/2613863456558677670017231 M-III3p3/2497651165259540555525702 M-IV3d3/2435344844617475248895028 M-V3d5/2412742474368449146154741 N-I4s174818131883195220242097 N-II4p1/2155816201683174918161885 N-III4p3/2124912921336137914241469 N-IV4d3/29559911029106711051145 N-V4d5/2898930965100010341070 N-VI4f5/2511538564591618645 N-VII4f7/2495520546572597524 O-I5s399416434452471490 O-II5p1/2326341357373389406 O-III5p3/2237245255262272280 O-IV5d3/2130137142149154161 O-V5d5/2117122127133137142 P-I6s525457596163 P-II6p1/2323335363738 P-III6p3/2161717171718

 

Quellen

[1] - J. A. Bearden, A. F. Burr:
Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels.
In: Reviews of Modern Physics, (1967), DOI 10.1103/RevModPhys.39.125.

[2] - M. Cardona, L. Ley:
Photoemission in Solids I. General Principles.
In: Topics in Applied Physics, (1978), DOI 10.1007/3-540-08685-4.

[3] - T. Porter, M. S. Freedman:
Recommended atomic electron binding energies, 1s to 6p3/2, for the heavy elements, Z=84 to 103.
Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, (1978), DOI 10.1063/1.555584.

[4] - John C. Fuggle, Nils Martensson:
Core-level binding energies in metals.
In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, (1980), DOI 10.1016/0368-2048(80)85056-0.

 


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