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Gadolinium-Isotope

Liste, Daten und Eigenschaften aller bekannten natürlichen und künstlichen Isotope des Gadoliniums sowie radioaktive Zerfallsprodukte bzw. Zwischenprodukte.



Gadolinium Isotope

Unter Gadolinium-Isotope werden alle Atomkerne des chemischen Elements Gadolinium zusammengefasst; diese bestehen allesamt aus einem Atomkern mit 64 Protonen und im ungeladenen Zustand aus 64 Elektronen. Der Unterschied zwischen den einzelnen Gadolinium-Isotopen beruht auf der Anzahl der Neutronen im Kern.

 

Natürlich auftretende Gadolinium-Isotope

Natürliche irdische Gadolinium-Vorkommen bestehen aus 6 stabilen Nukliden und einem Radionuklid:

Atommasse ArAnteilHalbwertszeitSpin
Gadolinium
Isotopengemisch
157,25 u100 %
Isotop 152Gd151,91980(2) u0,20(3) %1,08(8) × 1014 Jahre0+
Isotop 154Gd153,92087(2) u2,18(2) %stabil0+
Isotop 155Gd154,92263(2) u14,80(9) %stabil3/2-
Isotop 156Gd155,92213(2) u20,47(3) %stabil0+
Isotop 157Gd156,92397(2) u15,65(4) %stabil3/2-
Isotop 158Gd157,92411(2) u24,84(8) %stabil0+
Isotop 160Gd159,92706(2) u21,86(3) %stabil0+

 

Darüber hinaus wurden mehr als 30 weitere Gadoliniumisotope sowie mehrere Kernisomeren charakterisiert, die alle instabil sind:

 

Isotopentabelle: Gadolinium

Isotop
Nuklid
ZANNameAtommasse
[Kernmasse]
{Massenüberschuss}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μA-Nuk
123456789
134Gd6413470Gadolinium-134133,95566(43) u
[133,9205537 u]
{-41,30244 MeV}
0+
135Gd6413571Gadolinium-135134,95234(43) u
[134,9172337 u]
{-44,395 MeV}
(5/2+)
136Gd6413672Gadolinium-136135,94730(32) u
[135,9121937 u]
{-49,08973 MeV}
(0+)
137Gd6413773Gadolinium-137136,94502(32) u
[136,9099137 u]
{-51,21354 MeV}
(7/2)
138Gd6413874Gadolinium-138137,94010(21) u
[137,9049937 u]
{-55,79649 MeV}
0+
139Gd6413975Gadolinium-139138,93813(21) u
[138,9030237 u]
{-57,63153 MeV}
(9/2-)139Tb
139mGd6413975Gadolinium-139m138,93813(21) u
[138,9030237 u]
{-57,63153 MeV}
140Gd6414076Gadolinium-140139,93367(3) u
[139,8985637 u]
{-61,786 MeV}
0+140Tb
141Gd6414177Gadolinium-141140,932126(21) u
[140,8970197 u]
{-63,22422 MeV}
1/2+141Tb
141mGd6414177Gadolinium-141m140,932126(21) u
[140,8970197 u]
{-63,22422 MeV}
11/2-
142Gd6414278Gadolinium-142141,92812(3) u
[141,8930137 u]
{-66,95579 MeV}
0+142Tb
143Gd6414379Gadolinium-143142,9267(22) u
[142,8915937 u]
{-68,27851 MeV}
(1/2)+143Tb
143mGd6414379Gadolinium-143m142,9267(22) u
[142,8915937 u]
{-68,27851 MeV}
(11/2-)
144Gd6414480Gadolinium-144143,92296(3) u
[143,8878537 u]
{-71,7623 MeV}
0+144Tb
145Gd6414581Gadolinium-145144,921710(21) u
[144,8866037 u]
{-72,92667 MeV}
1/2+- 0,74(5)145Tb
145mGd6414581Gadolinium-145m144,921710(21) u
[144,8866037 u]
{-72,92667 MeV}
11/2--1,0(2)
146Gd6414682Gadolinium-146145,918319(4) u
[145,8832127 u]
{-76,08536 MeV}
0+146Tb
150Dy
147Gd6414783Gadolinium-147146,9191010(21) u
[146,8839947 u]
{-75,35693 MeV}
7/2-1,02(9)147Tb
151Dy
148Gd6414884Gadolinium-148147,9181215(17) u
[147,8830152 u]
{-76,26933 MeV}
0+148Tb
152Dy
149Gd6414985Gadolinium-149148,919348(4) u
[148,8842417 u]
{-75,12685 MeV}
7/2-0,88(4)149Tb
153Dy
150Gd6415086Gadolinium-150149,918664(7) u
[149,8835577 u]
{-75,764 MeV}
0+150Tb
154Dy
150Eu
151Gd6415187Gadolinium-151150,920355(3) u
[150,8852487 u]
{-74,18884 MeV}
7/2-0,77(6)151Tb
152Gd6415288Gadolinium-152151,91980(2) u
[151,8846937 u]
{-74,70582 MeV}
0+152Tb
152Eu
153Gd6415389Gadolinium-153152,9217574(13) u
[152,8866511 u]
{-72,88251 MeV}
3/2-0,38(8)153Tb
153m1Gd6415389Gadolinium-153m1152,9217574(13) u
[152,8866511 u]
{-72,88251 MeV}
(9/2+)
153m2Gd6415389Gadolinium-153m2152,9217574(13) u
[152,8866511 u]
{-72,88251 MeV}
(11/2-)
154Gd6415490Gadolinium-154153,92087(2) u
[153,8857637 u]
{-73,70912 MeV}
0+154Tb
154Eu
155Gd6415591Gadolinium-155154,92263(2) u
[154,8875237 u]
{-72,06969 MeV}
3/2-- 0,25723(35)155Tb
155Eu
155mGd6415591Gadolinium-155m154,92263(2) u
[154,8875237 u]
{-72,06969 MeV}
11/2-
156Gd6415692Gadolinium-156155,92213(2) u
[155,8870237 u]
{-72,53544 MeV}
0+156Tb
156Eu
156mGd6415692Gadolinium-156m155,92213(2) u
[155,8870237 u]
{-72,53544 MeV}
7-
157Gd6415793Gadolinium-157156,92397(2) u
[156,8888637 u]
{-70,82149 MeV}
3/2-- 0,3398(7)157Tb
157Eu
158Gd6415894Gadolinium-158157,92411(2) u
[157,8890037 u]
{-70,69108 MeV}
0+158Tb
158Eu
159Gd6415995Gadolinium-159158,9263963(13) u
[158,89129 u]
{-68,5614 MeV}
3/2-- 0,44(3)159Eu
159mGd6415995Gadolinium-159m158,9263963(13) u
[158,89129 u]
{-68,5614 MeV}
5/2+
160Gd6416096Gadolinium-160159,92706(2) u
[159,8919537 u]
{-67,94317 MeV}
0+160Eu
252Cf
161Gd6416197Gadolinium-161160,9296766(17) u
[160,8945703 u]
{-65,50583 MeV}
5/2-161Eu
162Gd6416298Gadolinium-162161,930992(4) u
[161,8958857 u]
{-64,28054 MeV}
0+252Cf
163Gd6416399Gadolinium-163162,934177(9) u
[162,8990707 u]
{-61,31373 MeV}
(5/2-,7/2+)
164Gd64164100Gadolinium-164163,93586(43) u
[163,9007537 u]
{-59,74603 MeV}
0+252Cf
165Gd64165101Gadolinium-165164,93939(13) u
[164,9042837 u]
{-56,45785 MeV}
166Gd64166102Gadolinium-166165,94146(21) u
[165,9063537 u]
{-54,52966 MeV}
0+
167Gd64167103Gadolinium-167166,94545(32) u
[166,9103437 u]
{-50,813 MeV}
(5/2-)
168Gd64168104Gadolinium-168167,94808(43) u
[167,9129737 u]
{-48,36317 MeV}
0+
169Gd64169105Gadolinium-169168,95260(54) u
[168,9174937 u]
{-44,15282 MeV}
(7/2-)
170Gd64170106Gadolinium-170169,95558(64) u
[169,9204737 u]
{-41,37696 MeV}
0+

 

 

IsotopZerfall (radioaktiver Zerfall)AEMehr
HalbwertszeitZerfallsartAnteilEnergieInfo
1101112131415
Gd-134AL
Gd-1351,1(2) sEE, β+ zu 135Eu
EE, p 134Sm
82 %
18 %
9,76(45) MeV
AL
Gd-136200 nsAL
Gd-1372,2(2) sEE β+ zu 137Eu
EE, p zu 136Sm
100 %
?
8,93(30) MeV
AL
Gd-1384,7(9) sEE β+ zu 138Eu100 %5,95(20) MeVAL
Gd-1395,8(9) sEE β+ zu 139Eu
EE, p zu 138Sm
100 %
?
7,77(20) MeV
AL
Gd-139m4,8(9) sEE β+ zu 139Eu
EE, p zu 138Sm
100 %
?

+x keV
Gd-14015,8(4) sEE β+ zu 140Eu100 %5,20(6) MeVAL
Gd-14114(4) sEE β+ zu 141Eu
β+, p zu 140Sm
99,97 %
0,03(1) %
6,701(23) MeV
AL
Gd-141m24,5(5) sEE β+ zu 141Eu
Iso zu 141Gd
89(2) %
11(2) %

377,76(9) keV
Gd-14270,2(6) sEE β+ zu 142Eu100 %4,35(4) MeVAL
Gd-14339(2) sEE β+ zu 143Eu100 %6,01(20) MeVAL
Gd-143m110,0(14) sEE β+ zu 143Eu100 %152,6 keVAL
Gd-1444,47(6) MinutenEE β+ zu 144Eu100 %3,86(3) MeVAL
Gd-14523,0(4) MinutenEE β+ zu 145Eu100 %5,065(20) MeVAL
Gd-145m85(3) sIso zu 145Gd
EE β+ zu 145Eu
94,3(5) %
5,7(5) %

749,1(2) keV
Gd-14648,27(9) TageEE β+ zu 146Eu100 %1,032(7) MeVAL
Gd-14738,06(12) StundenEE β+ zu 147Eu100 %2,188(3) MeVAL
Gd-14871,1(12) Jahreα zu 144Sm100 %3,27129(3) MeVAL
Gd-1499,28(10) TageEE β+ zu 149Eu
α zu 145Sm
> 99 %
<< 1 %
1,314(4) MeV
3,099(3) MeV
AL
Gd-1501,79(8) × 106 Jahreα zu 146Sm100 %2,807(6) MeVAL
Gd-151123,9(10) TageEE zu 151Eu
α zu 147Sm
> 99 %
<< 1 %
0,464(4) MeV
2,6527(29) MeV
AL
Gd-1521,08(8) × 1014 Jahreα zu 148Sm100 %2,2044(10) MeVAL
Gd-153240,4(10) TageEE zu 152Eu100 %0,4847(18) MeVAL
Gd-153m13,5(4) μsIso zu 153Gd100 %95,1736(8) keV
Gd-153m276,0(14) μsIso zu 153Gd100 %171,188(4) keV
Gd-154stabilAL
Gd-155stabilAL
Gd-155m31,97(27) msIso zu 155Gd100 %121,05(19) keV
Gd-156stabilAL
Gd-156m1,3(1) μs
Gd-157stabilAL
Gd-158stabilAL
Gd-15918,479(4) Stundenβ- zu 159Tb100 %0,9709(8) MeVAL
Gd-159m26,2(8) nsIso zu 159Gd100 %67,829(24) keV
Gd-160stabilAL
Gd-1613,66(5) Minutenβ- zu 161Tb100 %1,9558(14) MeVAL
Gd-1628,4(2) Minutenβ- zu 162Tb100 %1,40(4) MeVAL
Gd-16368(3) sβ- zu 163Tb100 %3,282(9) MeVAL
Gd-16445(3) sβ- zu 164Tb100 %2,30(14) MeVAL
Gd-16510,3(16) sβ- zu 165Tb100 %4,11(6) MeVAL
Gd-1664,8(10) sβ- zu 166Tb100 %3,35(21) MeVAL
Gd-1674,26 sβ- zu 167Tb100 %5,11(36) MeVAL
Gd-1683,03(16) sβ- zu 168Tb100 %4,36(50) MeVAL
Gd-1690,75(21) sβ- zu 169Tb
β-, n zu 168Tb
100 %
?
6,18(58) MeV
0,50(58) MeV
AL
Gd-1700,41 sβ- zu 170Tb
β-, n zu 168Tb
100 %
?
5,34(72) MeV
0,88(67) MeV

 

Erläuterungen zu den einzelnen Spalten:

1 - Symbol mit Nukleonenzahl.
2 - Z = Anzahl der Protonen (Ordnungszahl).
3 - Massenzahl A.
4 - N = Anzahl der Neutronen.
5 - Bezeichnung des Gadolinium-Isotops; gegebenenfalls Trivialnamen.
6 - Relative Atommasse des Gadolinium-Isotops (Isotopenmasse inklusive Elektronen) und in eckigen Klammern die Masse des Atomkerns (Kernmasse, Nuklidmasse ohne Elektronen), jeweils bezogen auf 12C = 12,00000 [2]. Zusätzlich ist der Massenüberschuss (Massenexzess) in MeV angegeben.
7 - Kernspin I, Einheit: h/2π.
8 - Kernmagnetisches Moment μmag.
9 - Ausgangsnuklide: Mögliche, angenommene oder tatsächliche Ausgangs-Nuklide (Mutternuklide, Elternnuklide). Die entsprechenden Zerfalls-Modi sind gegebenenfalls bei den Daten des jeweiligen Ausgangsnuklids zu finden.
10 - Zerfall: Halbwertszeiten des Gadolinium-Isotops mit a = Jahre; ; d = Tage; h = Stunden; min = Minuten; s = Sekunden.
11 - Zerfall: Zerfallsart in die jeweiligen Tochternuklide mit n = Neutronenemission; p = Protonenemission; α = Alpha-Zerfall; ß- = Beta-Minus-Zerfall unter Elektronenemission; EE = Elektroneneinfang; ß+ = Positronenemission; ε = ß+ und/oder EE; Iso = Isomerieübergang; CZ = Cluster-Zerfall; SZ = Spontanzerfall.
12 - Zerfall: Zerfallsanteil in Prozent (%).
13 - Zerfall: Zerfallsenergie; Partikelenergie bezogen auf Zerfallsart.
14 - AE = Anregungsenergie für metastabile Kerne.
15 - Sonstige Informationen und Hinweise: AL = Weitere Niveaus, so genannte Adopted Levels (Verlinkung auf externe Daten [1]).

Sonstige:

()- Eingeklammerte Ziffern: Unsicherheit zur Darstellung der Streubreite des angegebenen Wertes.
~ - Theoretische Werte oder systematische Trends.
  - ungelistet-: Nuklide, die in der Literatur bereits erwänhnt wurden, aber aus irgendwelchen Gründen in den aktuellen Nuklidtabellen nicht mehr zu finden sind, weil sich deren Entdeckung z. B. nicht bestätigt hat.

 

NMR-aktive Gadolinium-Nuklide

Nuklid
Anteil
Spin I
Kernmagnetisches
Moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetisches
Verhältnis
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupol-
Moment
Q fm-2
Resonanz-
Frequenz
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
Empfindlichkeit
H0 = const.
v0 = const. *
155Gd
14,80(9) %
3/2-
- 0,25723(35)0,8273127,0(30)1,3120,00015
0,1541
157Gd
15,65(4) %
3/2-
- 0,3398(7)1,0792135,0(30)1,7200,00033
0,2020

*) bezogen auf 1H = 1,000

 

Strahlenschutz

Für den Umgang mit den Gadolinium-Radionukliden gelten gemäß Strahlenschutzverordnung (StrlSchV 2018) unter anderem folgende Werte (Spalten 1 bis 7):

NuklidFreigrenzenHRQ-SchwelleOFKTochternuklideHalbwertszeit
Gd-145105 Bq10 Bq/g23,0 Minuten
Gd-146+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,03 TBqEu-14648,3 Tage
Gd-147106 Bq10 Bq/g38,1 Stunden
Gd-148104 Bq1 Bq/g0,4 TBq74,6 Jahre
Gd-149106 Bq100 Bq/g9,3 Tage
Gd-151107 Bq100 Bq/g124,0 Tage
Gd-152104 Bq1 Bq/g1,1 × 1014 Jahre
Gd-153107 Bq10 Bq/g1 T Bq10 Bq cm-2240,4 Tage
Gd-159106 Bq100 Bq/g2 TBq100 Bq cm-218,5 Stunden

(HRQ = Hochradioaktive Quellen; OFK = Oberflächenkontamination)

 

Kernisobare Nuklide des Gadoliniums

Zu den Gadolinium-Nukliden isobare Atomkerne befinden sich in der jeweiligen Tabellenzeile; Z = Ordnungszahl; A = Nukleonenzahl (Massenzahl).

Z:495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778
AInSnSbTeIXeCsBaLaCePrNdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTmYbLuHfTaWReOsIrPt
134134In134Sn134Sb134Te134I134Xe134Cs134Ba134La134Ce134Pr134Nd134Pm134Sm134Eu134Gd
135135In135Sn135Sb135Te135I135Xe135Cs135Ba135La135Ce135Pr135Nd135Pm135Sm135Eu135Gd135Tb
136136Sn136Sb136Te136I136Xe136Cs136Ba136La136Ce136Pr136Nd136Pm136Sm136Eu136Gd136Tb
137137Sn137Sb137Te137I137Xe137Cs137Ba137La137Ce137Pr137Nd137Pm137Sm137Eu137Gd137Tb
138138Sn138Sb138Te138I138Xe138Cs138Ba138La138Ce138Pr138Nd138Pm138Sm138Eu138Gd138Tb138Dy
139139Sb139Te139I139Xe139Cs139Ba139La139Ce139Pr139Nd139Pm139Sm139Eu139Gd139Tb139Dy
140140Sb140Te140I140Xe140Cs140Ba140La140Ce140Pr140Nd140Pm140Sm140Eu140Gd140Tb140Dy140Ho
141141Te141I141Xe141Cs141Ba141La141Ce141Pr141Nd141Pm141Sm141Eu141Gd141Tb141Dy141Ho
142142Te142I142Xe142Cs142Ba142La142Ce142Pr142Nd142Pm142Sm142Eu142Gd142Tb142Dy142Ho
143143Te143I143Xe143Cs143Ba143La143Ce143Pr143Nd143Pm143Sm143Eu143Gd143Tb143Dy143Ho143Er
144144I144Xe144Cs144Ba144La144Ce144Pr144Nd144Pm144Sm144Eu144Gd144Tb144Dy144Ho144Er144Tm
145145I145Xe145Cs145Ba145La145Ce145Pr145Nd145Pm145Sm145Eu145Gd145Tb145Dy145Ho145Er145Tm
146146Xe146Cs146Ba146La146Ce146Pr146Nd146Pm146Sm146Eu146Gd146Tb146Dy146Ho146Er146Tm
147147Xe147Cs147Ba147La147Ce147Pr147Nd147Pm147Sm147Eu147Gd147Tb147Dy147Ho147Er147Tm
148148Xe148Cs148Ba148La148Ce148Pr148Nd148Pm148Sm148Eu148Gd148Tb148Dy148Ho148Er148Tm148Yb
149149Cs149Ba149La149Ce149Pr149Nd149Pm149Sm149Eu149Gd149Tb149Dy149Ho149Er149Tm149Yb
150150Cs150Ba150La150Ce150Pr150Nd150Pm150Sm150Eu150Gd150Tb150Dy150Ho150Er150Tm150Yb150Lu
151151Cs151Ba151La151Ce151Pr151Nd151Pm151Sm151Eu151Gd151Tb151Dy151Ho151Er151Tm151Yb151Lu
152152Ba152La152Ce152Pr152Nd152Pm152Sm152Eu152Gd152Tb152Dy152Ho152Er152Tm152Yb152Lu
153153Ba153La153Ce153Pr153Nd153Pm153Sm153Eu153Gd153Tb153Dy153Ho153Er153Tm153Yb153Lu153Hf
154154La154Ce154Pr154Nd154Pm154Sm154Eu154Gd154Tb154Dy154Ho154Er154Tm154Yb154Lu154Hf
155155La155Ce155Pr155Nd155Pm155Sm155Eu155Gd155Tb155Dy155Ho155Er155Tm155Yb155Lu155Hf155Ta
156156Ce156Pr156Nd156Pm156Sm156Eu156Gd156Tb156Dy156Ho156Er156Tm156Yb156Lu156Hf156Ta
157157Ce157Pr157Nd157Pm157Sm157Eu157Gd157Tb157Dy157Ho157Er157Tm157Yb157Lu157Hf157Ta
158158Pr158Nd158Pm158Sm158Eu158Gd158Tb158Dy158Ho158Er158Tm158Yb158Lu158Hf158Ta158W
159159Pr159Nd159Pm159Sm159Eu159Gd159Tb159Dy159Ho159Er159Tm159Yb159Lu159Hf159Ta159W159Re
160160Nd160Pm160Sm160Eu160Gd160Tb160Dy160Ho160Er160Tm160Yb160Lu160Hf160Ta160W160Re
161161Nd161Pm161Sm161Eu161Gd161Tb161Dy161Ho161Er161Tm161Yb161Lu161Hf161Ta161W161Re161Os
162162Pm162Sm162Eu162Gd162Tb162Dy162Ho162Er162Tm162Yb162Lu162Hf162Ta162W162Re162Os
163163Pm163Sm163Eu163Gd163Tb163Dy163Ho163Er163Tm163Yb163Lu163Hf163Ta163W163Re163Os
164164Sm164Eu164Gd164Tb164Dy164Ho164Er164Tm164Yb164Lu164Hf164Ta164W164Re164Os164Ir
165165Sm165Eu165Gd165Tb165Dy165Ho165Er165Tm165Yb165Lu165Hf165Ta165W165Re165Os165Ir
166166Eu166Gd166Tb166Dy166Ho166Er166Tm166Yb166Lu166Hf166Ta166W166Re166Os166Ir166Pt
167167Gd167Tb167Dy167Ho167Er167Tm167Yb167Lu167Hf167Ta167W167Re167Os167Ir167Pt
168168Gd168Tb168Dy168Ho168Er168Tm168Yb168Lu168Hf168Ta168W168Re168Os168Ir168Pt
169169Gd169Tb169Dy169Ho169Er169Tm169Yb169Lu169Hf169Ta169W169Re169Os169Ir169Pt

 

Kernisotone Nuklide des Gadoliniums

Die zu den Gadolinium-Kernen isotonen Nuklide befinden sich in der jeweiligen Tabellenzeile; N = Anzahl der Neutronen.


707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105
109Y
110Zr111Zr112Zr
111Nb112Nb113Nb114Nb115Nb
112Mo113Mo114Mo115Mo116Mo117Mo
113Tc114Tc115Tc116Tc117Tc118Tc119Tc120Tc
114Ru115Ru116Ru117Ru118Ru119Ru120Ru121Ru122Ru123Ru124Ru
115Rh116Rh117Rh118Rh119Rh120Rh121Rh122Rh123Rh124Rh125Rh126Rh
116Pd117Pd118Pd119Pd120Pd121Pd122Pd123Pd124Pd125Pd126Pd127Pd128Pd
117Ag118Ag119Ag120Ag121Ag122Ag123Ag124Ag125Ag126Ag127Ag128Ag129Ag130Ag
118Cd119Cd120Cd121Cd122Cd123Cd124Cd125Cd126Cd127Cd128Cd129Cd130Cd131Cd132Cd133Cd
119In120In121In122In123In124In125In126In127In128In129In130In131In132In133In134In135In
120Sn121Sn122Sn123Sn124Sn125Sn126Sn127Sn128Sn129Sn130Sn131Sn132Sn133Sn134Sn135Sn136Sn137Sn138Sn
121Sb122Sb123Sb124Sb125Sb126Sb127Sb128Sb129Sb130Sb131Sb132Sb133Sb134Sb135Sb136Sb137Sb138Sb139Sb140Sb
122Te123Te124Te125Te126Te127Te128Te129Te130Te131Te132Te133Te134Te135Te136Te137Te138Te139Te140Te141Te142Te143Te
123I124I125I126I127I128I129I130I131I132I133I134I135I136I137I138I139I140I141I142I143I144I145I
124Xe125Xe126Xe127Xe128Xe129Xe130Xe131Xe132Xe133Xe134Xe135Xe136Xe137Xe138Xe139Xe140Xe141Xe142Xe143Xe144Xe145Xe146Xe147Xe148Xe
125Cs126Cs127Cs128Cs129Cs130Cs131Cs132Cs133Cs134Cs135Cs136Cs137Cs138Cs139Cs140Cs141Cs142Cs143Cs144Cs145Cs146Cs147Cs148Cs149Cs150Cs151Cs
126Ba127Ba128Ba129Ba130Ba131Ba132Ba133Ba134Ba135Ba136Ba137Ba138Ba139Ba140Ba141Ba142Ba143Ba144Ba145Ba146Ba147Ba148Ba149Ba150Ba151Ba152Ba153Ba
127La128La129La130La131La132La133La134La135La136La137La138La139La140La141La142La143La144La145La146La147La148La149La150La151La152La153La154La155La
128Ce129Ce130Ce131Ce132Ce133Ce134Ce135Ce136Ce137Ce138Ce139Ce140Ce141Ce142Ce143Ce144Ce145Ce146Ce147Ce148Ce149Ce150Ce151Ce152Ce153Ce154Ce155Ce156Ce157Ce
129Pr130Pr131Pr132Pr133Pr134Pr135Pr136Pr137Pr138Pr139Pr140Pr141Pr142Pr143Pr144Pr145Pr146Pr147Pr148Pr149Pr150Pr151Pr152Pr153Pr154Pr155Pr156Pr157Pr158Pr159Pr
130Nd131Nd132Nd133Nd134Nd135Nd136Nd137Nd138Nd139Nd140Nd141Nd142Nd143Nd144Nd145Nd146Nd147Nd148Nd149Nd150Nd151Nd152Nd153Nd154Nd155Nd156Nd157Nd158Nd159Nd160Nd161Nd
131Pm132Pm133Pm134Pm135Pm136Pm137Pm138Pm139Pm140Pm141Pm142Pm143Pm144Pm145Pm146Pm147Pm148Pm149Pm150Pm151Pm152Pm153Pm154Pm155Pm156Pm157Pm158Pm159Pm160Pm161Pm162Pm163Pm
132Sm133Sm134Sm135Sm136Sm137Sm138Sm139Sm140Sm141Sm142Sm143Sm144Sm145Sm146Sm147Sm148Sm149Sm150Sm151Sm152Sm153Sm154Sm155Sm156Sm157Sm158Sm159Sm160Sm161Sm162Sm163Sm164Sm165Sm
133Eu134Eu135Eu136Eu137Eu138Eu139Eu140Eu141Eu142Eu143Eu144Eu145Eu146Eu147Eu148Eu149Eu150Eu151Eu152Eu153Eu154Eu155Eu156Eu157Eu158Eu159Eu160Eu161Eu162Eu163Eu164Eu165Eu166Eu167Eu168Eu
134Gd135Gd136Gd137Gd138Gd139Gd140Gd141Gd142Gd143Gd144Gd145Gd146Gd147Gd148Gd149Gd150Gd151Gd152Gd153Gd154Gd155Gd156Gd157Gd158Gd159Gd160Gd161Gd162Gd163Gd164Gd165Gd166Gd167Gd168Gd169Gd
135Tb136Tb137Tb138Tb139Tb140Tb141Tb142Tb143Tb144Tb145Tb146Tb147Tb148Tb149Tb150Tb151Tb152Tb153Tb154Tb155Tb156Tb157Tb158Tb159Tb160Tb161Tb162Tb163Tb164Tb165Tb166Tb167Tb168Tb169Tb170Tb
138Dy139Dy140Dy141Dy142Dy143Dy144Dy145Dy146Dy147Dy148Dy149Dy150Dy151Dy152Dy153Dy154Dy155Dy156Dy157Dy158Dy159Dy160Dy161Dy162Dy163Dy164Dy165Dy166Dy167Dy168Dy169Dy170Dy171Dy
140Ho141Ho142Ho143Ho144Ho145Ho146Ho147Ho148Ho149Ho150Ho151Ho152Ho153Ho154Ho155Ho156Ho157Ho158Ho159Ho160Ho161Ho162Ho163Ho164Ho165Ho166Ho167Ho168Ho169Ho170Ho171Ho172Ho
143Er144Er145Er146Er147Er148Er149Er150Er151Er152Er153Er154Er155Er156Er157Er158Er159Er160Er161Er162Er163Er164Er165Er166Er167Er168Er169Er170Er171Er172Er173Er
144Tm145Tm146Tm147Tm148Tm149Tm150Tm151Tm152Tm153Tm154Tm155Tm156Tm157Tm158Tm159Tm160Tm161Tm162Tm163Tm164Tm165Tm166Tm167Tm168Tm169Tm170Tm171Tm172Tm173Tm174Tm
148Yb149Yb150Yb151Yb152Yb153Yb154Yb155Yb156Yb157Yb158Yb159Yb160Yb161Yb162Yb163Yb164Yb165Yb166Yb167Yb168Yb169Yb170Yb171Yb172Yb173Yb174Yb175Yb
150Lu151Lu152Lu153Lu154Lu155Lu156Lu157Lu158Lu159Lu160Lu161Lu162Lu163Lu164Lu165Lu166Lu167Lu168Lu169Lu170Lu171Lu172Lu173Lu174Lu175Lu176Lu
153Hf154Hf155Hf156Hf157Hf158Hf159Hf160Hf161Hf162Hf163Hf164Hf165Hf166Hf167Hf168Hf169Hf170Hf171Hf172Hf173Hf174Hf175Hf176Hf177Hf
155Ta156Ta157Ta158Ta159Ta160Ta161Ta162Ta163Ta164Ta165Ta166Ta167Ta168Ta169Ta170Ta171Ta172Ta173Ta174Ta175Ta176Ta177Ta178Ta
158W159W160W161W162W163W164W165W166W167W168W169W170W171W172W173W174W175W176W177W178W179W
159Re160Re161Re162Re163Re164Re165Re166Re167Re168Re169Re170Re171Re172Re173Re174Re175Re176Re177Re178Re179Re180Re
161Os162Os163Os164Os165Os166Os167Os168Os169Os170Os171Os172Os173Os174Os175Os176Os177Os178Os179Os180Os181Os
164Ir165Ir166Ir167Ir168Ir169Ir170Ir171Ir172Ir173Ir174Ir175Ir176Ir177Ir178Ir179Ir180Ir181Ir182Ir
166Pt167Pt168Pt169Pt170Pt171Pt172Pt173Pt174Pt175Pt176Pt177Pt178Pt179Pt180Pt181Pt182Pt183Pt
170Au171Au172Au173Au174Au175Au176Au177Au178Au179Au180Au181Au182Au183Au184Au
171Hg172Hg173Hg174Hg175Hg176Hg177Hg178Hg179Hg180Hg181Hg182Hg183Hg184Hg185Hg
176Tl177Tl178Tl179Tl180Tl181Tl182Tl183Tl184Tl185Tl186Tl
178Pb179Pb180Pb181Pb182Pb183Pb184Pb185Pb186Pb187Pb
184Bi185Bi186Bi187Bi188Bi
187Po188Po189Po

 

Literatur und Hinweise

Eigenschaften der Gadolinium-Isotope

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Gadolinium: Kernmagnetische Eigenschaften - 155Gd-NMR, 157Gd-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

Weitere Quellen:

[8] - Isotopenhäufigkeiten, Atommassen und Isotopenmassen: Siehe unter dem jeweiligen Stichwort.

[9] - E. May, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of samarium, europium, Dysprosium, and Dysprosium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.01.007.

 


Kategorie: Chemische Elemente

Letzte Änderung am 05.07.2020.



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